Next place where most of social development takes place is school and the influencing role of a teacher. Social behaviour is understood to be the product of innate biological factors resulting from evolution and of cultural factors that have emerged in the course of history. For example, group polarization, formerly known as the risky shift, occurs when people polarize their views in a more extreme direction after group discussion.  Because people are influenced by situations, general attitudes are not always good predictors of specific behavior. The actor-observer bias is the phenomenon of attributing other people’s behavior to internal factors (fundamental attribution error) while attributing our own behavior to situational forces (Jones & Nisbett, 1971; Nisbett, Caputo, Legant, & Marecek, 1973; Choi & Nisbett, 1998).  Replications are important, to ensure that the result is valid and not due to chance, or some feature of a particular sample. However, most scholars acknowledge that fraud is, perhaps, the lesser contribution to replication crises. Studies done in 2003 by Timothy Wilson and Daniel Gilbert have shown that people overestimate the strength of reaction to anticipated positive and negative life events that they actually feel when the event does occur. Social psychology studies also appear in general science journals such as Psychological Science and Science. Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions. Because it is usually impossible to test everyone, research tends to be conducted on a sample of persons from the wider population. In a second study, observers of the interaction also rated the questioner as having more general knowledge than the contestant. A major research topic in social cognition is attribution. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Definition: The Psychological Factors are the factors that talk about the psychology of an individual that drive his actions to seek satisfaction. Experiments are useful in social psychology because they are high in internal validity, meaning that they are free from the influence of confounding or extraneous variables, and so are more likely to accurately indicate a causal relationship. Social psychology has found itself at the center of a replication crisis due to some research findings proving difficult to replicate. Individual variation among group members plays a key role in the dynamic of how willing people will be to conform. In the United States, the predominant culture tends to favor a dispositional approach in explaining human behavior. Watch this TED video to apply some of the concepts you learned about attribution and bias. Persuasion relies on appeals rather than strong pressure or coercion. Social factors are things that affect lifestyle, such as religion, wealth or family. In this section, you’ll learn about how our attitudes about others and our perception of our self can be deceiving. . The more similar two people are in general attitudes, backgrounds, environments, worldviews, and other traits, the more probable an attraction is possible.[i]. Experiments using the implicit-association test, for instance, have found that people often demonstrate implicit bias against other races, even when their explicit responses reveal equal mindedness. Once a relatively speculative, intuitive enterprise, social psychology has become an active form of empirical investigation, the volume of research literature having risen rapidly after about 1925. Due to this lack of information we have a tendency to assume the behavior is due to a dispositional, or internal, factor.
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